The way the usage data which have to be collected according to (EC) No 1185/2009 are obtained by the Member States may differ considerably: while in Germany usage data are deduced from a network of survey farms (panel) (Rossberg, 2016) and in Ireland, annual surveys on different crops/permanent cultures are conducted (Pesticides Registration and Control Division, 2018), in Denmark, farmers are required to upload their pesticide use data (Kudsk et al., 2018). Therefore, the Danish data may be more detailed and realistic, while others have the character of estimates.


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