Farm specialisation describes the trend towards a single dominant activity in farm income. A farm is specialised in case a particular activity provides at least two thirds of the production or the business of an agricultural holding (Eurostat, 2018).
Specialisation of agricultural production may go along with a change or an increase in fertilisation and pesticide use. Specialisation may be detected as change of pattern in land use, i. e. a narrowing of cropping patterns towards a smaller number of crops.
The main indicator is the share of the utilised agricultural area (UAA) managed by specialised farming, i. e., a farm where a single type of production or service dominates farm income. The supporting indicator is the number and share of specialised holdings, i. e. the farms where a single type of production or service dominates farm income (Eurostat, 2018).