EPRIP calculates and compares PECs across the environmental compartments of air, soil, groundwater and surface water (Oliver et al., 2016; Padovani et al., 2004; Trevisan et al., 2009). It is based upon the ratio of PEC, which represents the estimated exposure at a local scale (field and surroundings) with short-term toxicity data. ETR values are transformed into risk points (RP) using a scale from 1 to 5 where the PEC value and corresponding RP are: <0.01 is RP 1, <0.1 is RP 2, <1.0 is RP 3, <10 is RP 4 and >10 is RP 5. The final EPRIP score is obtained by multiplying the RP values calculated for each compartment: surface water, groundwater, soil and air (Oliver et al., 2016; Trevisan et al., 2009).

To arrive at a PEC, the indicator uses a variety of equations that consider a pesticide’s exposure potential and sitespecific application data. Then, EPRIP divides the PEC by the pesticide’s toxicity data in order to generate an EPRIP potential risk score for beneficial organisms and humans. EPRIP could be a useful tool for farmers, technical advisors and regulating authorities to provide information on the environmental effects for different pesticide treatment strategies and to facilitate the selection of the best option to reduce the risk associated with pesticide use.


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