Definitions of key terms and words used used by the FAIRWAY project and in this website.

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Adviesbasis CBGV

The recommendations for fertilization of grassland and maize are published by the Commission on Fertilization of Grassland and Fodder crops. The recommendations refer to, amongst others, N rates and are specified for different growing conditions, such as soil type, N release in soil by mineralisation and hydrology (water availability). Country of use: NL.


Agri-Environmental Measures


Agri-Environmental Schemes

Agro-Meteorological Service

The Agro-Meteorological Service portal is run by NIBIO in collaboration with the Norwegian met office, and the main task is to provide meteorological data for better management of climate risks in important agricultural and horticultural districts. Country of use: NO.


(Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment) gives a farm specific view of nutrient inputs and outputs and the emissions to the environment; N and P surpluses to the soil (surpluses resulting from fertilizer use and plant uptake), NO3 leaching to upper groundwater and NH3 emissions to the air. ANCA does not include measures, but farm advisors use the results to discuss possible improvements (and thus possible measures) for nutrient efficiency with the farmer. When measures are implemented, ANCA can be used as a monitoring tool to evaluate the effects on the emissions and nutrient use efficiency. Although ANCA was developed to support at farm level, results on a regional scale are used by regional policy makers to estimate possible and feasible reductions of N and P surpluses in catchments. Country of use: NL.


Biocontrol Agents


Birds Directive

BedrijfsWaterWijzer (BWW)

(Farm Water Management Guide) indicates risks on 7 main water management aspects for specific dairy farms and suggests measures for improvement. The aspects are 1) runoff form the farmyard, 2) water retention in the soil (draught prevention), 3) wetness (damage crops), 4) NO3 leaching to groundwater, 5) runoff and drainage of N & P to local surface waters, 6) drinking water for cattle and 7) management of local surface waters (ditches) and recycling of grass clippings and dredging. The indicated risks are scored in a qualitative way (Good, Moderate, Insufficient, bad). BWW can support farmers to evaluate the effect of measures and, although not directly, indicates measures to improve the water related risks. Country of use: NL.


Online meteorological data on precipitation and field data are processed to give irrigation requirements for individual fields. Recommendations on optimal rates prevent excess irrigation which could enhance leaching and facilitates preservation of the optimal level of water content in soil, resulting in higher N uptake and better utilization of fertilizer N. Country of use: NL.


A groundwater chemical management and forecasting DST intended to assist the municipality and water works by providing an overview (screening) of the concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in the groundwater. Additionally, it can be used to monitor/follow the state and trends in the groundwater quality. Country of use: DK.


A consistent and comprehensive evaluation method of visual observations on sod density (sprouts per cm2), botanical composition of grass sod, soil density, biological activity, abundance of macro fauna, rooting depth. Optionally also chemical quality of the grass and maize silage. This supports farmers to indicate soil problems. Country of use: NL.


Common Agricultural Policy

Catchment Lake Modelling Network

A network of process-based, mass-balance models linking climate, hydrology, catchment-scale nutrient dynamics and lake processes. The model network allows disentangling of the effects of climate change from those of land-use change on lake water quality and phytoplankton growth. The model network can thus support decision-making to achieve good water quality and ecological status. Country of use: NO.


Cost Benefit Analysis


Cost Effective Analysis

Check it Out

The Check it Out Tool was designed to help farmers and sprayer operators review and improve spraying practices and so reduce the risk of pesticides reaching water. The tool has 22 multi-choice questions covering Planning and Management, Filling and Handling, Soil Management and Field Practice. After completing the questions, users are given a score for each aspect of their spraying operation, and an overall score. Country of use: UK.


Common Implementation Strategy


European Cooperation in Science and Technology


The CTtool provides estimates for nitrate leaching based on nitrogen surplus calculations for individual fields. The results are used to define current practices. Country of use: DK.

Decision Support Tools (DSTs)

A wide range of computer-based simulation models and/or techniques and methods developed to support decision analysis and participatory processes. DSTs can facilitate dialogue and exchange of information thus providing insights to non-experts and support them in the exploration of policy options. (Definition adapted from


Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development


Directorate General for Environment 


Directorate General for Research and Innovation


Directive on Sustainable use of Pesticides


A farm-holistic DST which helps to identify the total amount of fertilizer to be purchased and its field-specific distribution. It combines measured on-farm data (soil nutrient contents, farm manure analysis, etc.), information on crop cultivation (crop rotation, yield level, etc.) with economic implications (e.g. fertilizer prices). Country of use: DE.


Drinking Water Directive


Manuals for growing the different agricultural crops based on results from the most recent field trials. The manuals are updated yearly (or whenever needed) to give farmers and advisors information on all aspects of Good Agricultural Practise in crop production (recommendations on how to grow individual crops). Country of use: DK.


European Environment Agency


European Environment Information and Observation Network


European Innovation Partnership on agricultural productivity and sustainabEIP WATER ility


The European Innovation Partnership on Water


European Institute of Innovation and Technology

Environmental Yardstick for Pesticides

The online version of the yardstick and the information sheets per crop, are used mainly to support IPM operational management at farmscale. The excel and GRIP-based offline application are used to evaluate current practices and the effect of measures that are being taken: Spraying schemes are evaluated in terms of environmental impact. This is done in hindsight or ex-ante, for one crop or all, for one farm or for groups on a regional level. When done on a regional level during several years this provides water authorities with a proxy – instead of real measurements in groundwater as travel times of pollution takes so long - on the effectiveness of programs aimed at reducing impact on groundwater. Country of use: NL.


European Research Area Net


European Research Council


A commercial phone app, allowing farmers in the same geographic areas to obtain volume-based discounts on purchases of feed stuffs or fertiliser and to sell farm produce easily and securely. The secondary component of the app uses farm location to create a set of weather alerts relating to Grass Growth, Environment & Safety, Harvesting, Fertilising & Seeding and Animal Health. Country of use: IE.


(FARM Scale Optimisation of Pollutant Emission Reduction) can be used to assess diffuse agricultural pollutant loads on a farm and quantify the impacts of farm mitigation methods on these pollutants. The farm systems within the tool can be customised to reflect management and environmental conditions representative of farming across England and Wales. Contains over 100 mitigation methods, including many of those in the latest Defra Mitigation Method User Guide. Country of use: UK.


(Slovene information system for plant protection). State information system for public use presenting information for producers. Registered plant protection products, plant protection related legislation, organism names, descriptions, pictures, forecast information, important information for plant producers, news, other information regarding plant protection. Country of use: SI.


Water quality model. The regional water balance model GROWA-SI is the official state model for reporting of Nitrate Directive implementation at a country wide level. It was developed by the JULICH Institute from Germany for the Slovenian Environmental Agency (SEA). It can calculate groundwater recharge rates for Slovenia. It also has the capability to account for N balances. Country of use: SI.


Groundwater Directive


A process-oriented model which simulates N-mineralisation in the soil and adjusts real-time recommendation for N-fertilizers in winter wheat accordingly. Input variables are soil texture, crop rotation, yields quality expectations, prices of N-fertilizers and the wheat product, irrigation and depth of groundwater table. The required N-fertilizer is calculated by the sum of N-withdrawal + N in the soil which is not crop available - Nmin - N-mineralisation. Country of use: DE.


Joint Research Centre

Mark Online

Applied by farmers and advisors for fertiliser planning, optimization and documentation in Danish crop production. It covers all aspects of crop management including soil tillage and crop protection. Mitigation is included by economic optimisation with respect to national rules and regulations. Mark Online ensures that pesticides and nutrients are used according to legislation and key data obtained via field trials. Country of use: DK.


Member States

multi-actor approach

A time-bound and deliberate process in which multiple actors meet to address a development challenge and acheive collective results, for example in settling priorities or implementing a project. (Acquaye-Baddoo et al. 2010)

multi-actor platform

A more-or-less ongoing mechanism in which actors meet regularly to foster exchange and promote joint decision making and collaboration in a continuously evolving way. (Acquaye-Baddoo et al. 2010)

Načrtovanje gnojenja (NG/FP)

Assists agricultural advisers and farmers to optimise fertilizer use in all agricultural sectors, most notably in horticulture and field crop agriculture. Allows the user to quickly calculate recommended quantities of N, P and K fertilizers, both as organic and easily soluble mineral fertilizers, as well as the need for lime. Annual or multi-year fertilizwe plans can be produced, together with the correct crop rotation taking into account the amount of organic fertilisers produced on the farm. Country of use: SI.


Nitrates Directive

Nitrogen Dynamics in Crop Rotations in Ecological Agriculture (NDICEA)

The NDICEA nitrogen planner presents an integrated assessment of nitrogen availability for crops. This is more than simple nitrogen budgeting for each crop - crop demand is on one side, and expected availability of artificial fertilizers and manures, crop residues, green manures and soil is on the other side, also taking into account leaching and denitrification losses. Country of use: NL.

OECD-EUROSTAT N Balance Analysis (OENBA)

Joint Eurostat-OECD meetings identify and agree on the most robust and feasible methodology for the calculation of N and P balances. This handbook sets out the main principles of the methodology across OECD and EU Member countries. The aim is to be able to consistently produce an indicator based on a single methodology and harmonised definitions for all countries. In Slovenia, results are prepared by the Agricultural Institute for the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. This paper based tool serves as basis for reporting to the EU about Nitrate Directive implantation and as a basis for preparation of legislation and measures for drinking water protection areas. Country of use: SI.


Based on a combination of indicators relating to the environmental vulnerability of the surface water environment and the agricultural pressure. The combination of these indicators for each pixel provides the contamination risk. PHYTOPIXAL is a GIS model. Using this tool saves time in the detection of action zones allowing for a better implementation of the recommendations aimed at reducing contamination. The method can be an accessible common baseline (reference tool). Country of use: FR.


A nutrient management decision support tool for use by farmers and advisers in England/Wales and Scotland for field level nutrient planning and for assessing and demonstrating compliance with the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) rules. Country of use: UK.

Plant Protection Online

Applied by farmers and advisors for reduction of use of pesticides and ensuring that only legal pesticides are used. The tool gives recommendations on whether or not to spray, dosage and spraying time. Country of use: DK.


Programmes of Measures


Plant Protection Products Regulation


An electronic database which contains details of product label and off-label information including MRL’s, environmental and operator restrictions, ProCheck provides a highly comprehensive pesticide data source. Maintained daily by Muddy Boots, ProCheck is updated using the latest web technology. Being an off-line application ensures users can access the data at any time without the need to ‘log-on’, and even use the system in the field on a laptop. Its powerful search engine enables product choice by a large number of criteria delivering true decision support capability. Country of use: UK.


River Basin Management Planning


Rural Development Plan


Research Executive Agency


European policy for research and technological development


A tool to help decision-makers, including governments, non-governmental organisations, land owners etc. to work out where to prioritise activities that protect the water environment, and so make our water clean again. SCIMAP is an approach to the generation of risk maps for diffuse pollution within catchments. SCIMAP aims to determine where within a catchment is the most probable source of diffuse pollution and is based on a probabilistic/relative approach. Country of use: UK.

Sentinel Online

Allows anyone with an interest in crop production to quickly find the information required to make key decisions in crop management. Features include: The Pesticide Database; Library; Decision support including crop nutrition, NVZ rules and recommendations; Technical updates; Weeds, pests and disease identification information; Diary Dates i.e. cross compliance dates and deadlines. Country of use: UK.


Allows pesticides to be classified according to their potential to reach surface water and groundwater. SIRIS allows classification of pesticides into the ‘ideal’ and the ‘worst’ for use on the farm/field. It can help a farmer to select the best one according environment parameters. Additionally, SIRIS-Pesticides can help to organize the monitoring of pesticides in waters at the regional or local scale (as set by the user). The results of SIRIS are rankings that represent risks. Country of use: FR.


The most commonly used farm level DST for fertiliser application (N and P) on agricultural fields in Norway. Calculates optimal fertilization rates, to avoid excess N and P in soils and runoff. Also used to keep track of what is grown on the fields year by year and what other treatments/measures implemented; plant protection, soil cultivation, etc. Used by farmers and agricultural advisers. Country of use: NO.

Smernice za strokovno gnojenje (SSG/GPBF)

Guidelines for professional based fertilisation. A collection of fertiliser use instructions based on experience, plant development observations, and chemical analyses of soil and plant parts. The guidelines are in line with the regulations and requirements for the quality of crops and the preservation of a clean environment. Intented to set a broader framework that is not based solely on political decisions or fashion trends, but on rational expert findings. Country of use: SI.


Science Policy Interface

State network of groundwater monitoring points (SNGMP)

Policy makers and water managers (Ministry, Environmental Agency) make decisions based on the state approved water quality monitoring network. Measured values and their trends over the years serve as one of the base indicators for introducing new measures or of the success of previously introduced measures. The temporal scale of state monitoring is once or twice per year. Monthly, daily or weekly monitoring (depending on conditions) is performed by drinking water suppliers (water companies). Country of use: SI.


This integrated modeling system calculates nutrient emissions to water from agriculture and nature land areas in the Netherlands. It is designed and used for evluation at national and regional level of the effects of fertilizer policy measures for runoff and leaching of N and P to ground water and surface waters. The coupled model SWAP-Animo in STONE can distinguish the processes and sources that determine runoff and leaching to water (fertiizer use, atmospheric deposition, seepage, mineralization). This output is used by regional and national policy makers to initiate effective measures, allocate source reduction targets and underpin (semi) natural background levels in catchments of surface water bodies. Country of use: NL.


An integrated economic and biophysical social planner model which minimizes the costs of meeting a nutrient load reduction target in a specific water body. The model is calibrated for the watershed to the Danish Fjord Limfjorden. It is currently being set up for the whole country of Denmark, and is being used for advise of the Ministry of Environment and Food for planning related to the Water Framework Directive. Country of use: DK.

Teagasc Nutrient Management Planner Online

A system for developing farm-scale nutrient management plans for environmental and regulatory purposes. In addition to guidance on storage for on-farm slurry/manure and concentrate needs the application provides field maps showing nutrient and liming requirements based on soil testing. Quite technical so likely to be used by agricultural consultants on behalf of most farmers. Country of use: IE.

Water Aware

A phone app which forecasts risk of movement of selected pesticides from soils based on soil type and soil moisture deficit, along with forecasted weather conditions. Uses a traffic light system to advise farmers and sprayer operators when it is safe/unsafe to apply chemicals or slug pellets. The latest version incorporates #SlugAware which provides an estimated risk of slug and snail activity on a field-by-field basis for the day and 72 hours in advance (particularly focussed on metaldehyde). Country of use: UK.


Water Framework Directive


Water Information System for Europe


Water Supply and Sanitation Technology Platform

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